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-------- Original Message --------
Subject: Interspecies Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease: Wisconsin Species Likely to be Exposed
Date: Wed, 11 Feb 2004 11:39:01 -0600
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." <[email protected]>
To: BSE-l <[email protected]>


As 'Mad' Deer Roam Freely, Scientists Worry
Similarities Between Chronic Wasting Disease and Mad Cow Boost Funding
to Discover How the Former Spreads

By Marc Kaufman
Washington Post Staff Writer
Monday, February 9, 2004; Page A12

snip...

Williams said research into whether chronic wasting disease can jump to
other species has been somewhat reassuring. Sheep and cattle placed
alongside infected deer have not contracted the disease. In another
experiment, mush made from the brains of infected deer was fed to cattle
to see whether they would develop the disease. Six years later, Williams
said, they have not. Efforts to infect monkeys with chronic wasting
disease have not succeeded.

But researchers have found they can transmit chronic wasting disease to
cattle and to mice by injecting infected tissue into their brains. They
are also concerned that carnivores such as wolves and mountain lions
could get infected if they eat diseased wild deer and elk -- especially
the brains and central nervous system tissues.

snip...

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A23822-2004Feb8.html

seems they are still taking this too lightly. they failed to tell you
that not
only the 5 cows (last i checked) went down with CWD, but also one SHEEP
went down with CWD during lab experiments. also, CWD transmitted to primates
years ago. now, others seem to be worried about other species feeding on the
carcases of dead deer and elk infected with CWD ;

Interspecies Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease:


Wisconsin Species Likely to be Exposed


Cherrie A. Nolden 1,2,

Michael D. Samuel 1,

Judd M. Aiken 2

1Department of Wildlife Ecology , 1630 Linden
Drive, Madison, WI 53706

2Department of Animal Health and Biomedical Sciences
, 1656 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706

Background

Recent studies indicate that chronic wasting disease (CWD
) may
be transmitted to deer by direct contact, from fecal or urine
contamination, or through environmental contamination associated with
carcasses of infected deer. The potential for environmental
contamination with CWD provides a potential source for transmission to
wildlife that share habitat with white-tailed deer. Carcasses of deer
will also be consumed by wildlife, but little is known about the
frequency and range of species that eat deer carrion and could be
exposed to CWD from an infected carcass. In Wisconsin, the primary
carrion consumers will likely include Eastern coyote (Canis latrans
),
red fox (Vulpes vulpes
),
common raccoon (Procyon lotor
),
striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis
)
and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana
).
Although these species may consume infected deer tissue, it is unknown
whether CWD can successfully cross the species barrier to infect these
animals.


Objectives

This research is intended to investigate the decomposition of deer
carcasses, determine the types and number of animals that consume deer
carcasses, and evaluate the possibility of interspecies transmission of
CWD from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus
)
carcasses to carrion consumers.


Methods

We will identify the species that consume deer carrion, as they are the
most likely to encounter PrPCWD from a deer that died of the disease, by
using remotely triggered cameras on deer carcasses (fawns or adults
testing negative by immunohistochemistry [IHC
]) throughout the CWD-affected
region of Wisconsin.

We are collecting up to 100 of each primary carrion consumer species
annually from the CWD-affected region of southern Wisconsin
,
with the assistance of the Wisconsin Trappers Association
. Collected animals will be necropsied to
collect brain, lymph node, spleen and feces, which will be tested for
the resistant form of the prion protein which causes CWD.

The native species that we are collecting from the CWD-affected region
of southern Wisconsin provide a valuable collection of animals that will
also be used to survey for a range of other wildlife and zoonotic
diseases. Testing for occurrence of these wildlife and zoonotic diseases
will be conducted by research collaborators listed below.

Dorothy Ginnett at the
University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point is
evaluating heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis
) in the canids.

Shelly Michalski at the
University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh
is evaluating tissues and
serum for Neospora caninum
.

Doug Docherty
at the
National Wildlife Health Center is
evaluating samples for WNV antibody.

Jennifer Meece

and Kurt Reed

at Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation
are doing the majority of
the diagnostic testing:

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE
),

LaCrosse encephalitis virus (LAC
),

Western equine encephalitis virus (WEE
),

West Nile Virus (WNV ),

St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLE
),

Hantavirus ,

Rabies virus ,

Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi
),

Ehrlichia

species,

Bartonella species,

Leptospira interrogans
,

Mycobacterium bovis
and M. avium paratuberculosis
,

Blastomyces dermatitidis
,

Baylisascaris procyonis
,

Echinococcus multilocularis
and E. granulosus



Preliminary Results

Species Observed Near or Consuming Deer Carcasses:


Mammals

Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana
)

Common Raccoon (Procyon lotor
)

Striped Skunk (Mephitis mephitis
)

White-footed Mouse (Peromyscus leucopus
)

Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris
)

Domestic Cat (Felis sylvestris catus
)

Eastern Coyote (Canis latrans
)

Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes
)

Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis
)

Eastern Cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus
)

White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus
)


Birds

American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos
)

Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis
)

Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus)

Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus
)

Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus)

Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura
)

Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos
)

Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus
)

UW-Madison * Department of Wildlife Ecology
* Coop Unit
* CWD Research
* Cherries
Page


Cherrie Nolden, 27 January 2004


http://wildlife.wisc.edu/coop/CWD/interspecies transmission.htm

http://wildlife.wisc.edu/coop/CWD/CWD_Introduction.html

In Confidence - Perceptions of unconventional slow virus diseases
of animals in the USA - APRIL-MAY 1989 - G A H Wells

PAGE 25

Transmission Studies

Mule deer transmissions of CWD were by intracerebral inoculation and
compared with natural cases resulted in a more rapidly
progressive clinical disease with repeated episodes of synocopy ending
in coma. One control animal became affected, it is believed through
contamination of inoculam (?saline). Further CWD transmissions were
carried out by Dick Marsh into ferret, mink and squirrel monkey.
Transmission occurred in all of these species with the shortest
incubation period in the ferret.


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11b/tab01.pdf

we must not forget this old study either;

1: J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8


Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to
nonhuman primates.

Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.

Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of
sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri
sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their
nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic
incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was
36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and
that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and
32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal
cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral
lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has
remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under
observation.

PMID: 6997404

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=6997404&dopt=Abstract



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