Michigan's First Case of Chronic Wasting Disease Detected in Kent County

Discussion in 'Whitetail Deer Disease' started by foxriver6, Aug 25, 2008.

  1. terry

    terry Banned

    Likes Received:
    Bacliff, TEXAS USA
    Disposal of meat and bone meal (MBM) derived from specified risk material (SRM) and over thirty month scheme carcasses by landfill The Committee was asked to consider a quantitative risk assessment of the disposal of meat and bone meal derived from specified risk material and over thirty month scheme carcasses by landfill, prepared in response to a request from the Committee at its June 1999 meeting.

    The Committee was asked whether, in the light of the results of the risk assessment, it held to its earlier published (June 1999) view that landfill was an acceptable outlet for MBM of any origin, although it retained a preference for incineration. The Committee reiterated that it had a strong preference for incineration as the favoured route for the disposal of MBM and were uneasy about the use of landfill for the disposal of this material. If there were cases where incineration was not practical the Committee felt it would be preferable for any material going to landfill to be pressure-cooked first or possibly stored above ground prior to incineration.


    Disposal of BSE suspect carcases It is the Department's policy to dispose of BSE suspects by incineration wherever feasible. No BSE suspect carcases have been landfilled since 1991.








    MEETING OF 16-17 JANUARY 2003

    The details of the SSC’s evaluation are provided in the attached report. The SSC

    concludes as follows:

    (1) The term “burial” includes a diversity of disposal conditions. Although burial is

    widely used for disposal of waste the degradation process essential for BSE/TSE

    infectivity reduction is very difficult to control. The extent to which such an

    infectivity reduction can occur as a consequence of burial is poorly characterised.

    It would appear to be a slow process in various circumstances.

    (2) A number of concerns have been identified including potential for groundwater

    contamination, dispersal/transmission by birds/animals/insects, accidental

    uncovering by man.

    (3) In the absence of any new data the SSC confirms its previous opinion that animal

    material which could possibly be contaminated with BSE/TSEs, burial poses a

    risk except under highly controlled conditions (e.g., controlled landfill).



    In the absence of new evidence the opinion of the SSC “Opinion on Fallen Stock”

    (SSC 25th June 1999) must be endorsed strongly that land burial of all animals and

    material derived from them for which there is a possibility that they could

    incorporate BSE/TSEs poses a significant risk. Only in exceptional circumstances

    where there could be a considerable delay in implementing a safe means of disposal

    should burial of such materials be considered. Guidelines should be made available

    to aid on burial site selection.

    4 PAGES;


    During the 2001 outbreak of FMD in the UK, the

    Department of Health prepared a rapid qualitative

    assessment of the potential risks to human health

    associated with various methods of carcass disposal

    (UK Department of Health, 2001c). The most

    relevant hazards to human health resulting from

    burial were identified as bacteria pathogenic to

    humans, water-borne protozoa, and BSE. The main

    potential route identified was contaminated water

    supplies, and the report generally concluded that an

    engineered licensed landfill would always be

    preferable to unlined burial. In general terms, the

    findings of the qualitative assessment relative to

    biological agents are summarized in Table 13.

    TABLE 13. Potential health hazards and associated pathways of exposure resulting from landfill or burial of

    animal carcasses (adapted from UK Department of Health, 2001c).


    http://www.k-state.edu/projects/fss/research/books/carcassdispfiles/PDF%...les/CH 1 - Burial.pdf

    PART 2

    Rendering and fixed-facility incineration were

    preferred, but the necessary resources were not

    immediately available and UK officials soon learned

    that the capacity would only cover a portion of the

    disposal needs. Disposal in commercial landfills was

    seen as the next best environmental solution, but

    legal, commercial, and local community problems

    limited landfill use. With these limitations in mind,

    pyre burning was the actual initial method used but

    was subsequently discontinued following increasing

    public, scientific, and political concerns. Mass burial

    and on-farm burial were last on the preferred

    method list due to the complicating matter of bovine

    spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and the risk posed

    to groundwater (Hickman & Hughes, 2002).

    http://www.k-state.edu/projects/fss...to Part 2 - Cross-Cutting & Policy Issues.pdf

    Carcase disposal:

    A Major Problem of the

    2001 FMD Outbreak

    Gordon Hickman and Neil Hughes, Disposal Cell,

    FMD Joint Co-ordination Centre, Page Street



    3. Prof. A. Robertson gave a brief account of BSE. The US approach was to accord it a _very low profile indeed_. Dr. A Thiermann showed the picture in the ''Independent'' with cattle being incinerated and thought this was a fanatical incident to be _avoided_ in the US _at all costs_...





    Some unofficial information from a source on the inside looking out -


    As early as 1992-3 there had been long studies conducted on small pastures containing scrapie infected sheep at the sheep research station associated with the Neuropathogenesis Unit in Edinburgh, Scotland. Whether these are documented...I don't know. But personal recounts both heard and recorded in a daily journal indicate that leaving the pastures free and replacing the topsoil completely at least 2 feet of thickness each year for SEVEN years....and then when very clean (proven scrapie free) sheep were placed on these small pastures.... the new sheep also broke out with scrapie and passed it to offspring. I am not sure that TSE contaminated ground could ever be free of the agent!! A very frightening revelation!!! ...


    More here:



    Requirements include:

    a. after burning to the range of 800 to 1000*C to eliminate smell;

    well heck, this is just typical public relations fear factor control. do you actually think they would spend the extra costs for fuel, for such extreme heat, just to eliminate smell, when they spread manure all over your veg's. i think not. what they really meant were any _TSE agents_.

    b. Gas scrubbing to eliminate smoke -- though steam may be omitted;

    c. Stacks to be fitted with grit arreaters;


    1.2 Visual Imact

    It is considered that the requirement for any carcase incinerator disign would be to ensure that the operations relating to the reception, storage and decepitation of diseased carcasses must not be publicly visible and that any part of a carcase could not be removed or interfered with by animals or birds.

    full text;



    Oral Transmissibility of Prion Disease Is Enhanced by Binding to Soil Particles

    Christopher J. Johnson1,2, Joel A. Pedersen3, Rick J. Chappell4, Debbie McKenzie2, Judd M. Aiken1,2*

    1 Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America, 2 Department of Comparative Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America, 3 Department of Soil Science and Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America, 4 Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

    Soil may serve as an environmental reservoir for prion infectivity and contribute to the horizontal transmission of prion diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies [TSEs]) of sheep, deer, and elk. TSE infectivity can persist in soil for years, and we previously demonstrated that the disease-associated form of the prion protein binds to soil particles and prions adsorbed to the common soil mineral montmorillonite (Mte) retain infectivity following intracerebral inoculation. Here, we assess the oral infectivity of Mte- and soil-bound prions. We establish that prions bound to Mte are orally bioavailable, and that, unexpectedly, binding to Mte significantly enhances disease penetrance and reduces the incubation period relative to unbound agent. Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed that across the doses of TSE agent tested, Mte increased the effective infectious titer by a factor of 680 relative to unbound agent. Oral exposure to Mte-associated prions led to TSE development in experimental animals even at doses too low to produce clinical symptoms in the absence of the mineral. We tested the oral infectivity of prions bound to three whole soils differing in texture, mineralogy, and organic carbon content and found soil- bound prions to be orally infectious. Two of the three soils increased oral transmission of disease, and the infectivity of agent bound to the third organic carbon-rich soil was equivalent to that of unbound agent. Enhanced transmissibility of soil-bound prions may explain the environmental spread of some TSEs despite the presumably low levels shed into the environment. Association of prions with inorganic microparticles represents a novel means by which their oral transmission is enhanced relative to unbound agent.


    Discussion These experiments address the critical question of whether soil particle*bound prions are infectious by an environmentally relevant exposure route, namely, oral ingestion. Oral infectivity of soil particle*bound prions is a conditio sine qua non for soil to serve as an environmental reservoir for TSE agent. The maintenance of infectivity and enhanced transmissibility when TSE agent is bound to the common soil mineral Mte is remarkable given the avidity of the PrPTSE*Mte interaction [22]. One might expect the avid interaction of PrPTSE with Mte to result in the mineral serving as a sink, rather than a reservoir, for TSE infectivity. Our results demonstrate this may not be the case. Furthermore, sorption of prions to complex whole soils did not diminish bioavailability, and in two of three cases promoted disease transmission by the oral route of exposure. While extrapolation of these results to environmental conditions must be made with care, prion sorption to soil particles clearly has the potential to increase disease transmission via the oral route and contribute to the maintenance of TSE epizootics.

    Two of three tested soils potentiated oral prion disease transmission. The reason for increased oral transmissibility associated with some, but not all, of the soils remains to be elucidated. One possibility is that components responsible for enhancing oral transmissibility were present at higher levels in the Elliot and Bluestem soils than in the Dodge soil. The major difference between the Dodge soil and the other two soils was the extremely high natural organic matter content of the former (34%, [22]). The Dodge and Elliot soils contained similar levels of mixed-layer illite/smectite, although the contribution of smectite layers was higher in the Dodge soil (14%*16%, [22]). The organic matter present in the Dodge soil may have obstructed access of PrPTSE to sorption sites on smectite (or other mineral) surfaces.

    The mechanism by which Mte or other soil components enhances the oral transmissibility of particle-bound prions remains to be clarified. Aluminosilicate minerals such as Mte do not provoke inflammation of the intestinal lining [39]. Although such an effect is conceivable for whole soils, soil ingestion is common in ruminants and other mammals [25]. Prion binding to Mte or other soil components may partially protect PrPTSE from denaturation or proteolysis in the digestive tract [22,40] allowing more disease agent to be taken up from the gut than would otherwise be the case. Adsorption of PrPTSE to soil or soil minerals may alter the aggregation state of the protein, shifting the size distribution toward more infectious prion protein particles, thereby increasing the specific titer (i.e., infectious units per mass of protein) [41]. In the intestine, PrPTSE complexed with soil particles may be more readily sampled, endocytosed (e.g., at Peyer's patches), or persorbed than unbound prions. Aluminosilicate (as well as titanium dioxide, starch, and silica) microparticles, similar in size to the Mte used in our experiments, readily undergo endocytotic and persorptive uptake in the small intestine [42*44]. Enhanced translocation of the infectious agent from the gut lumen into the body may be responsible for the observed increase in transmission efficiency.

    Survival analysis indicated that when bound to Mte, prions from both BH and purified PrPTSE preparations were more orally infectious than unbound agent. Mte addition influenced the effective titer of infected BH to a lesser extent than purified PrPTSE. Several nonmutually exclusive factors may explain this result: (1) other macromolecules present in BH (e.g., lipids, nucleic acids, other proteins) compete with PrPTSE for Mte binding sites; (2) prion protein is more aggregated in the purified PrPTSE preparation than in BH [45], and sorption to Mte reduces PrPTSE aggregate size, increasing specific titer [41]; and (3) sorption of macromolecules present in BH to Mte influences mineral particle uptake in the gut by altering surface charge or size, whereas the approximately 1,000-fold lower total protein concentration in purified PrPTSE preparations did not produce this effect.

    We previously showed that other inorganic microparticles (kaolinite and silicon dioxide) also bind PrPTSE [22]. All three types of microparticles are widely used food additives and are typically listed as bentonite (Mte), kaolin (kaolinite), and silica (silicon dioxide). Microparticles are increasingly included in Western diets. Dietary microparticles are typically inert and considered safe for consumption by themselves, do not cause inflammatory responses or other pathologies, even with chronic consumption, and are often sampled in the gut and transferred from the intestinal lumen to lymphoid tissue [39,46,47]. Our data suggest that the binding of PrPTSE to dietary microparticles has the potential to enhance oral prion disease transmission and warrants further investigation.

    In conclusion, our results provide compelling support for the hypothesis that soil serves as a biologically relevant reservoir of TSE infectivity. Our data are intriguing in light of reports that naïve animals can contract TSEs following exposure to presumably low doses of agent in the environment [5,7*9]. We find that Mte enhances the likelihood of TSE manifestation in cases that would otherwise remain subclinical (Figure 3B and 3C), and that prions bound to soil are orally infectious (Figure 5). Our results demonstrate that adsorption of TSE agent to inorganic microparticles and certain soils alter transmission efficiency via the oral route of exposure.

    snip...full text is here:

    http://pathogens.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get- document&doi=10.1371/journal.ppat.0030093

    http://pathogens.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get- pdf&file=10.1371_journal.ppat.0030093-L.pdf

    http://pathogens.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get- pdf&file=10.1371_journal.ppat.0030093-S.pdf

    more on CWD and environment here ;


  2. Hamilton Reef

    Hamilton Reef Guest

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    Tuesday, August 26, 2008

    MUCC Calls for Hunter Cooperation on CWD Crisis

    LANSING, MICH – One of Michigan's greatest fears has been realized.

    On Monday, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and the Michigan Department of Agriculture (DOA) confirmed that a captive white-tailed deer has tested positive for Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a deadly neurological disease that affects deer, elk and moose.

    Michigan United Conservation Clubs (MUCC), Michigan's largest and oldest conservation organization, began an immediate investigation after the tragic announcement late yesterday. MUCC members who establish the organization's policy positions have previously adopted resolutions supporting the fair and equitable phasing-out of captive cervid facilities in addition to a statewide baiting ban, positions also supported by the DNR. MUCC policy points to preventative disease control in wildlife populations at the focal point of the baiting/cervid farm debate.

    "The discovery of a CWD-positive deer in Michigan is not a warning shot across our bow, it is a direct hit that could be a potentially lethal blow to this state's proud hunting heritage and our state economy," said MUCC President Bill Krepps. Krepps commended the DNR for initial response efforts but remained cautiously concerned about the positive identification of CWD inMichigan. "CWD is a hazardous threat that hunters must take seriously - diseases are scary and dangerous things. But instead of reacting negatively, now is the time to work together to insulate our deer heard from further spread of this horrible disease. In order to protect our current and future hunting heritage, Michigan hunters must stop baiting and feeding deer to prevent CWD and other diseases from not only infecting other animals, but to ensure a proper long-term scientific management of our herd."

    The DNR's early response included immediate activation of its CWD contingency plan, which includes a ban on baiting and feeding of deer and elk in Michigan's Lower Peninsula, a ban on transportation of deer and a quarantine of captive cervid facilities. Additionally, hunters who harvest deer in the department's surveillance "hot zone" in the Kent County townships of Tyrone, Solon, Nelson, Sparta, Algoma, Courtland, Alpine, Plainfield, and Cannon will be required to participate in a deer check.

    CWD is a fatal neurological disease that cannot be detected with live animal tests. As such, the department will also kill and test 300 deer within the "hot zone." According to the DNR, the response plan is designed to prevent potential spread of the disease. (Click here to download the DNR response plan for CWD or visit www.michigan.gov/dnr)

    In the meantime, MUCC scheduled an emergency meeting with DNR Director Becky Humphries and Michigan's Conservation Coalition for late Tuesday afternoon to discuss implications of the CWD discovery and address forward action to minimize or prevent its spread. Michigan's Conservation Coalition is an alliance of sportsmen groups that are unified to protect five priority areas of the hunting, fishing, trapping, and conservation community: Sportsmen's Heritage, Long Term Funding, Habitat and Access, Hunter/Angler Recruitment and Retention, and the Prevention of Invasive Species.

    Deer hunting is big business in Michigan where an estimated $500 million is generated each year by the state's firearms deer season which runs from Nov. 15-30. The state is home to nearly one million deer hunters and has a proud hunting tradition that spans over a century. However, if CWD were to find its way into the state's wild deer populations, that heritage and revenue could be in serious jeopardy.

    The impact of CWD and eradication efforts on the state's economy and hunting traditions could be immense. Neighboring Wisconsin, where CWD was discovered in a wild white-tailed deer in 2002, has contributed to a 10 percent decrease in hunting license sales, and efforts to eradicate deer from the Wisconsin CWD area have fallen woefully short. Worse yet, a deep wedge has been driven between the hunting community and wildlife managers over the handling of the disease.

    Who will pay the price if CWD spreads beyond game fences into our wild herds? Sportsmen and Sportswomen. InWisconsin, roughly $32 million was spent in 2005 to combat CWD, $26.8 million of which came from the state's DNR – monies generated directly from license fees that sportsmen and sportswomen pay, which is diverted from wildlife management.

    "This is a very serious disease with serious implications," said MUCC Executive Director Muchmore. "We must do what we can now and hope we haven't missed the opportunity to minimize the effect that CWD can have on our wildlife population due to these cervid farms. MUCC is remaining cautiously optimistic that the steps being taken will hold this disease in check, but in the meantime we're keeping a keen eye on the management of this crisis to ensure the smallest possible impact on our treasured natural resources."



    Dave Nyberg, Resource Policy Specialist (517) 346-6462
    Amy Spray, Resource Policy Specialist (517) 346-6484

    About MUCC

    Michigan United Conservation Clubs has been Michigan's first voice for Michigan's out-of-doors since 1937. With over 45,000 members and 400 affiliated clubs throughout the state, MUCC's primary objective is Uniting Citizens to Conserve, Protect, and Enhance Michigan's Natural Resources and Outdoor Heritage.

    David Nyberg
    Resource Policy Specialist
    Michigan United Conservation Clubs
    2101 Wood Street
    Lansing, MI 48912

    MUCC has been Michigan's first voice for Michigan's out-of-doors since 1937. MUCC clubs and members strive to Unite Citizens to Conserve, Protect, and Enhance Michigan's Natural Resources and Outdoor Heritage.

  3. Hamilton Reef

    Hamilton Reef Guest

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    Discovery of Chronic Wasting Disease in Michigan Underscores Threat Game Ranches Pose to Wildlife

    Statement by Andy Buchsbaum, Regional Executive Director
    Great Lakes Office of the National Wildlife Federation

    ANN ARBOR (August, 26, 2008)—“The discovery of chronic wasting disease in Michigan is devastating news for the millions of people who care about the state’s wildlife and natural resources.”

    “Chronic wasting disease is a deadly disease that poses a severe threat to Michigan’s wild deer and elk populations.”

    “The discovery of chronic wasting disease in Michigan underscores why game ranches pose a serious threat to wildlife. Game ranches cut off natural wildlife migration corridors, increase transmission of disease from captive animals to the wild herd and impact the ability of resource managers to do their jobs.”

    “The discovery of chronic wasting disease in Michigan is another example of how the commercialization of wildlife puts free-ranging wildlife at risk.”

    “Now, Michigan is forced to deal with the ramifications of this deadly disease which boils down to the state spending millions of dollars to control and combat this disease at a time when the Department of Natural Resources needs every dollar available to maintain our state parks, continue with highly popular trout and salmon stocking programs, and funding wildlife habitat restoration projects.”

    “Now, the state will have to reallocate critical wildlife and natural resource funding to combat chronic wasting disease out of the pockets of Michigan's hunters and anglers and others who enjoy Michigan's great outdoors.”

    “The National Wildlife Federation is committed to working with the Department of Natural Resources and partners in the conservation community, including the Michigan United Conservation Clubs, in confronting this serious threat.”

    For Immediate Release:
    August 26, 2008

    Jordan Lubetkin, National Wildlife Federation, (734) 887-7109, [email protected]
    Marc Smith, National Wildlife Federation, (734) 887-7116, [email protected]

    Jordan Lubetkin
    Senior Regional Communications Manager
    National Wildlife Federation - Great Lakes Office
    213 West Liberty, Suite 200 | Ann Arbor, MI 48104

    Phone: 734-887-7109 | Fax: 734-887-7199 | Cell: 734-904-1589

    NWF's mission is to inspire Americans to protect wildlife for our children's future. www.nwf.org/news/

    Working to restore the Great Lakes by offering solutions to sewage contamination, invasive species and other threats. www.healthylakes.org
  4. Rancid Crabtree

    Rancid Crabtree

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    “Now, Michigan is forced to deal with the ramifications of this deadly disease which boils down to the state spending millions of dollars to control and combat this disease at a time when the Department of Natural Resources needs every dollar available to maintain our state parks, continue with highly popular trout and salmon stocking programs, and funding wildlife habitat restoration projects.”

    Please don't waste your money. Don't do what WI did and Piss away a bunch of money and in the end, learn that it was for nothing. There are more deer in the CWDMZ now then there were before CWD was discovered in WI. Our panel set forth some good guidelines after the 35 million dollars were spent because the CWD budget got slashed once everybody realized that it was just trowing money away on a disease that can not be erradicated.

    Look to CO. Look to WI. Don't waste your sportsmens dollars. Test and monitor. That's it. Don't waste your time trying to eradicate within a wild population as that is folly. If you feel you need to reduce herd size for a healthy deer herd, do so but not simply because of CWD.
  5. fowl


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    Ban baiting and feeding in the lower peninsula??? I suppose we'll wait until CWD or TB shows up in the UP before it is banned there. The politics behind these decisions causes our agencies to be reactive and not pro-active. This could have been prevented, but politicians don't have the guts to do the right thing, someones feelings might be hurt. Baiting and feeding should have been banned statewide years ago.

    As was said earlier, cervid facilities benefit few and pose a huge risk to the resource that will effect us all.
  6. Hamilton Reef

    Hamilton Reef Guest

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    Officials scramble to find source of CWD

    MDA officials are working with the state Department of Natural Resources to review records from the contaminated facility in Kent County and five others to trace animals that were purchased, sold or moved within the last seven years. Meanwhile, approximately 60 deer at the Kent County facility were destroyed this week at taxpayer expense. The state will pay about $4,000 to cull the animals and $7,000 for subsequent disease testing and carcass disposal, while the federal government will reimburse the facility owner as much as $180,000 for lost livestock, officials said.

  7. terry

    terry Banned

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    Bacliff, TEXAS USA
    Deer breeders welcome news that Kent County chronic wasting case was isolated

    by Howard Meyerson | The Grand Rapids Press Thursday September 04, 2008, 8:00 AM

    Press File Photo Fall is prime time for deer farm owners who sell breeding bucks and does.GRAND RAPIDS -- Test results on more than 50 deer killed and taken off a northern Kent County deer breeding farm last week all have come back negative for chronic wasting disease, Michigan Department of Agriculture officials said Wednesday.

    That finding means only one deer, a 3-year-old doe, was found to be infected with the fatal neurological disease. Officials are waiting for test results on four other deer taken off two deer farms, in Osceola and Montcalm counties. Both were breeding facilities that received deer from the Kent County farm, which has not been identified.

    "It's a relief that we don't have 40 that are positive," said Steve Halstead, the state veterinarian. "That (result) would suggest that anything that moved out of that herd would be positive."

    Deer breeders also are relieved. A negative test means the MDA can start to selectively lift the quarantine imposed on 559 deer farms last week. The quarantine was put in place to stop deer from moving between facilities, possibly spreading the disease.

    "This is very good news," said Alex Draper, president of the Michigan Deer and Elk Association, an organization of deer breeders. "I (had) sent an e-mail telling them that the panic level (among breeders) is going up by the hour."

    Fall is prime time for deer farm owners who sell breeding bucks and does. The state quarantine prohibited any animals from coming to or leaving the farms, effectively halting their business.

    A U.S. Department of Agriculture review of the captive deer trade in Michigan shows there are 26,000 privately owned deer. That herd is valued at $53.8 million, Halstead said.

    Negative test results for CWD in the last four deer could mean some quarantines will be lifted starting next week. Agriculture officials are working up the details for how that would happen.

    "More positive animals might drag things out," Halstead said. "But if not, we will begin selectively releasing the quarantine to get people back in business."

    How just one deer got infected remains a question. Numerous theories are being investigated. Those include the possibility of fenceline contact with an outside deer, said Halstead, who thinks that is unlikely. No sign of the disease has so far show up in the wild whitetail population.

    "Another possibility is illegal movement of deer with CWD from another state. We don't have evidence, but we are looking into that," Halstead said.

    A rare but possible spontaneous occurrence also has not been ruled out. CWD belongs to a class of diseases called spongiform encephalopathies. Species specific forms of the disease are known to occur spontaneously.

    "We know Creutzfeldt-Jakob occurs in one in a million people," Halstead said. "It just develops. And that's presumed to happen with Mad Cow Disease with cattle and Scrapie with sheep. We can make the assumption that it also occurs spontaneously in deer.

    Another avenue of investigation, he said, is into deer breeders who do taxidermy. A CWD incident occurred in New York state three years ago after a deer breeder and rehabilitator was found to have a CWD-infected deer.

    He was known to have raised his fawns in his taxidermy shop where he worked on a CWD-infected deer shot in another state. The skull and hide scrapings from the shop also were spread on the grounds.

    "It was the only positive case in New York state," Halstead said.


    i don't think isolated is the proper word, until all the deer are tested in all these game farms. lifting quarantines without all animals tested is a bad move in my opinion. ...TSS

    P.S. plus, what about the game farm where the one CWD infected doe was found, how many years will that farm be quarantined, due to environmental contamination ???
    Last edited: Sep 4, 2008